in Seoul, Korea.

Korean lessons: Lesson 3

Phonological notes

  1. Syllable-final Consonants (받침):

1) Theoretically, any consonant can be in the 받침  (syllable final) position. In reality,  , , and are not used as 받침.

2) Some of the consonants merge into one sound when they are in the syllable-final position.  Orthographically, however, they remain different. Summarized as follows:

consonant endings 받침  sound  examples 
,   [k]  부엌 
, , , , ,   [t]  , , , , , all pronounced as [ ]
,   [p]  ,   both pronounced as []

3) These merged sounds regain their original values when they are followed by a zero-initial syllable (i.e. vowel).

+ (topic/subject marker) = [가기 kagi]
부엌 + (place marker) = [부어케 puo^k`e]
+ (temporal marker) = [나제 naje]
+ (place marker) = [나체 nach`e]
+ (top./sub. marker) = [이비 ibi]
+ (top./sub. maeker) = [이피 ip`i]


2. Rules of Pronunciation

2.1. Liason (받침 carry-over)

1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial.


국이  [구기]     문이  [무니]   
밥을   [바블] 옷이  [오시 ] 
잎이 [이피] 밖에   [바께]

2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the folowing syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-syllable.


앉아요 [안자요] 읽어요   [일거요]    
밟아요   [발바요]       핥아요 [할타요]  
읊어요 [을퍼요] 없어요   [업서요]


2.2.  Nasalization

When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (,), the non-nasal consonant absorbs the nasality, keeping its place of articulation. Remember, '' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero.

, , , , ,   / before or


갑니다 → [감니다]        낱말 → [난말]         먹는다   [멍는다]


2.3. Aspiration

         When [h] is adjacent, a consonant is influenced and aspirated.

  / before or after 


좋다 →  [조타] 노랗다 → [노라타]      
생각하다 → [생가카다]      입히다 →[이피다]


2.4. Palatalization

When or is followed by [i], a paplatalization occurs.

[t] ㅈ [ch]
[t`] [ch`]   / before


미닫이→[미다지] 굳이 →[구지] 같이 →[가치]


2.5. Liquidation

    /before another


전라북도 [절라북도] 신라 [실라]